Gullik's Baptism (1794)Gullik was born 26 Jan 1794 on Hære Farm in Øvre Eiker, Buskerud, Norway to parents Peter Gullichsen Refsal and Tønne Ingebrigtsdatter Hære (Tønne is sometimes spelled Tynni). Gullik was baptized in what seems to be Haug Church (same place his parents were married) on the 2 Feb 1794.1
From what I've been able to ascertain, Gullik was the middle child, the only boy born to a house of 4 sisters. The family stayed at Hære Farm (sometimes written as Hehre) through the 1801 census where Gullik is listed as 8 years old, living with his parents, sisters Helene, 11, and Gunnild, 4, and their grandmother Gunnild Ellingsdatter, 77 who is noted as twice widowed. Father Peter is listed as a peasant farmer.2 The family is more precisely noted as living on Søndre Hære farm for youngest daughter Elen Maria's baptism in 1803.3
By 1 May 1808 the family relocated to Konnerud. This is where we find Gullik's confirmation. He's now noted as being 14, and the son of Peter Gulliksen Narverudeie.4 It is believed that Gullik's father relocated the family for work. Since life as a crofter was tough, it's likely the growing demand for steady work in the nearby mining town of Konnerud enticed Peter and his family to take the 20 kilometer trek.
Gullik's Confirmation Record (1808)Narverud consists of a group of mines located in Daleråsen in the Nedre Eiker municipality. Narverud mines have the largest collection of Iron Ore deposits in the region. The only mine open in Peder's time was "Dronning Mauds stoll" [Queen Maude's drift] which opened about 1697 & was operated by Dikemark ironworks from 1780-1820.
On 27 Oct 1825, in Røyken church, Maren Christensdatter Wear married Gullik Pedersen Loe "from Jarlsberg Verk”. Both Maren and Gullik had smallpox. “Gullik is physically scarred and Maren lost one eyeB from fighting smallpox,” is mentioned in the church book. Maren had as her best man, Hans Jonsen Lingsom from Royken, while Gullik had the clerk of Skoger, H.G. Allum.10 H.G. is described as the most famous clerk the village has had. He was a diligent writer, and states that he had more of a desire to write than keep up with school. He wrote a poem for the wedding.
Gullik & Maren's marriage record lists Gullik as being from "Jarlsberg Verk". Since we know this was not actually his birthplace, we can assume it's where Gullik was living at the time of his marriage. "Jarlsberg Verk" was in Konnerud and official known as the “Jarlsbergske Silver, Lead and Copper Works”, which was once owned by the Earl of Jarlsberg. It has no great economic history, but we can assume Gullik's father moved here to work in the mines after relocating from the nearby Narverud mines.
Gullik & Marien's Marriage (1825)The Loe-name occurs in several places in Konnerud of old, and when Gullik had this name, it must reasonably be because he has had his childhood home in one of these places. A parcel of land by Veierud and Knatholt is still called Loe (pronounced "Loo" like Lue/Lew) to this very day, probably after a Gudbrand Loe, who lived on Knatholt first in the 1700s. In 1847, Christen C. Loe is mentioned as one of the tenant farmers under Eikholt.
It is certain that in 1826, the year after they married, Gullik and Maren lived under Eikholt in Konnerud where Gullik was working as a carpenter.11 In 1828 he was listed as a farmer and again has the Loe farm name attached to his name, even though he was written as living under Eikholt.12
Myre Farm Property Register (1833)Eikholt fell under the general area of Jarlsberg Verk and going even further, Veierud and Knatholt fell under the area of Eikholt (based on the organization of government property registers). Gullik's father, Peter, is mentioned as owner of Veierud and Knatholt before 1827 in those registers, meaning the Loe land in Eikholt was Gullik and Maren's residence.13, C
By report from written records, grandson Carl Christoffersen is quoted:
“There were enough wealthy farmhouse daughters from Røyken requiring his carpentry skills to earn grandfather the necessary money to buy a house, because when they married Gullik had nothing.” He had apparently operated as a house carpenter because he bought the farm. Gullik however had problems and he was not particularly frugal with his money. He would like to drink and play cards to the point of forgetting his responsibilities and gambling away the family's money. It all ended with the family having to leave the farm, stripped of everything and banished to the outskirts of town. They lived for a time at Bogen (under Hov) in Hurum while my grandfather was on looking for a suitable farm. Mother-in-law, Marthe Hansdatter Ovnerud in Royken, was so ashamed of the situation Gullik had gotten his family in that she had promised to go pull him money to help pay for a place of their own. He found a convenient place in Strommen (Svelvik), and here he bought some land under Sondre Myhre farm. The houses he built himself using resources from the nearby forest, and cleared some additional land to graze a cow. Otherwise, he worked as a skilled house carpenter. Among other things, he built a quarantine station / guard house during the cholera outbreak (cholera times) in Saltskjær (an island on the Drammensfjord just south of Svelvik)."D
Myhre Farm in Strømm Farm Book"About my grandmother (Maren), I do not know much to say. She eventually became blind in both eyes. The last eye she lost by an accident while living in Bogen (under Hov farm in Hurum). The youngest of her children were born after she had lost sight. She died several years after my grandfather."
The family came to Strommen on 3 Jul 1833 when Gullik purchased a portion of the Myhre farm between 1833 and 3 Apr 1834.14, E ** Gullik can be found on 1st of March 1837, when we see Gullik in court,F reconciling commission to a couple of dealers for an estate debt (seems a common theme). In the property register of 1838 he is among the tenant farmers under Myhre stated: Gullik Pedersen Loe, guilt, 12 shillings.15
Gullik Petersen Loe died at Myre farm in Svelvik on 29 Feb 1856 and was buried on March 9th.16
Of the children Gullik and Maren, we know there were 6:
PETRONELLE, was born about 7 and a half months after her parents' marriage on the 5 Jun 1826. Sponsors: Johanne M. Abrahamsdatter, Gunnild Pedersdatter, tailor Abraham Larsen, bachelor Syvert Evensen, all of Eikholt, and Anders Stenersen Eskerud.11 “Nelia”, as she was called, was married in Drammen to bookbinder Mads Pedersen.19 Together they had three children: Madsen Marie, who was said to have been a great beauty, Gustav and Lauritz. Petronelle died approx. 1902 in Strømsø nursing home.20
EMANUEL, born 14 Feb 1835 22, was 13 year old at Rød farm in Hurum, disclosed in school register for Strømmen. Emanuel took to sea as a mate and married in Oslo with Marie Dorthea Johnsdatter.23 Together they had three children: Inga Emilie, who married Ole Barthsen (see later), Johan worked at Langaards Tobaksfabrik and Kristian.
INGEBORG, born 22 Apr 1841
22 Apr 1843 in Strommen.24
GUSTAVUS “GUSTAV”, born 1 Feb 1846 in Strommen.25 He is listed in the 1865 census as living with his sister, Mathea in Svelvik. He was a sailor. Gustav died in England when he fell into the frigid waters between the dock and the vessel and drowned. He is depicted as a pretty handsome fellow. He was almost finished with mate school when he passed away (would have been around 20 based on similar relatives graduations from mate school).
Of the children, only Ingeborg we have real knowledge of. Ingeborg is described by her daughter, Ragna Gunnersen of Drammen, as a tall and beautiful woman. She entered service with the ship owner Borch in Drammen and on 2 Aug 1868 in Stromso married NILS RASMUSSEN,26 born in Royken, on the 6 Feb 1847.27 He was a chief engineer at Holmens Bruk for 45 years, and died 4 Nov 1923.28 Ingeborg died on the 16 Jan 1903.29 She was spent the last 20 years of her life suffering for a heart condition. They had the grief of losing their first four children as minors, namely Inga Marie, Gustava Anette, Reinert and Anna. This was followed by INGA, born 10 January 1876, (lives with her sister Ragna), GUSTAVA, born 29 July 1878, died on 27 January 1930, and RAGNA, born 18 January 1880.
Death and Burial of Gullik (1856)Gustava married a master shoemaker (cobbler) Henrik Kristiansen in Drammen, born 2 May 1869, died 20 June 1940. Three children: Gudrun Jeanette, born 29 August 1902, “Reidar” Christoffer, born 29 April 1905, co-owner of Norløffs Hardware Business A/S, married Inger Eriksen, and Ella, born 18 December 1906, employed in the linen shop.
Ragna married 22 November 1901 with the carpenter Ole Sauthon Gunnersen, born 10 September 1882 in Sigdal. He died 29 January 1906. Two children: “Sigrun” Ingeborg, born 9 February 1903, married to the telegraphist Roar Jansen from Sundland pr. Drammen, and Erling “Gunnar”, born 18 September 1905, Office of shipowner Karl Bruusgaard, married Hard Olsrud, from Jevnaker.
Ragna Gunnersen, since her husband died, was employed as a cashier and bookkeeper. In the last 20 years she has been employed by Ad. Hægg, Gjaerfabrikken (Yeast Factory) and Danvik, where she still is. She has taken prominent part in society life in Drammen, including as chairman of the Drammen Female Commercial Association, as deputy chairman of the Professional Women's Club and as treasurer and secretary of Drammen's women's association.
[The above is an amended and expanded translation from the small family history booklet "Forfedrene Og Vi" by Sigfred L. Eier. He published about 50 copies for family in Svelvik, Norway in 1942. Sigfred was a freelance writer for the Svelviksposten local newspaper, a local historian for the towns of Svelvik & Strommen, a family historian, and a cousin; his father was the Carl Christoffersen (brother of Cornelius) quoted above.]
Peter Gullichsen Refsal, abt 1762 - 21 Feb 1825
Tønni Ingebrigtsdatter Hæreie, abt 1761 - 04 Jan 1832
Maren Christensdatter Wear, 26 Oct 1800 - 17 Dec 1869
- Petronelle "Nelia" Gulliksen, 05 Jun 1826 – abt 1902
- Christian August Gulliksen, 12 Aug 1828 – 03 Apr 1876
- Mathea Gulliksdatter Loe, 21 Mar 1831 – 06 Apr 1905
- Emanuel Gulliksen, 14 Feb 1835 – ?
- Ingeborg Gulliksdatter, 22 Apr 1841 – 16 Jan 1903
- Gustavus "Gustav" Gulliksen, 01 Feb 1846 – ?
A Skp=skippund, Lispd=lispund (1 skippund = 20 lispund = 160 kg grain). The size of a farm was measured in the yearly rent the farmer had to pay (in goods) the landowner.
B This mark noted in the parish register probably means smallpox cost Maren part of her vision and that she went blind in one eye, not that she was physically missing an eye.
C Based on this information, its more than reasonable to assume that any reference to Gullik and Maren at Jarlsberg Verk or Eikholt is not a menion of exact location of residence, but more a general description of where they lived... like stating the county you were from or a larger nearby town instead. This would explain why he is still going by Gullik Petersen Loe after he seems to leave Loe after marriage for "Eikholt" and then return as Loe years later, yet still go by Loe when he lives on Myre in Svelvik. That wouldn't happen unless it was a significant portion of his life, of who he was, was at Loe farm. It's likely he actually lived there for the first 10 years of marriage, possibly longer.
D Major cholera pandemics are documented to have swept thru Europe starting in early 1832 and less severely continued through 1849. When someone mentions "Cholera times" in the 1800's, it is in reference to 1832 and the following year or so after the pandemic.
E Relocation occurred sometime between the summers of 1831 and 1834 (Mathea born early 1831 in Skoger). On 5th of November 1834 was Gullik Pettersen Loe at [Myhre] submitted to the local court by worker Anders Andersen in Strømmen for missing pay, 6 daler, 1 ort and 12 skilling. The negotiations were delayed because Gullik was sick. December 3rd 1834 the case settled. The wage would be paid.
F “Forlikskommisjon” is the first court instance with no judge, just a commission to try to find an agreement between the parties without using the court system.
* Konnerud records are listed in the Skoger parish register.
G Christian had a son Martin Christiansen (cousin to our Cornelius Christoffersen). He was a cook at sea and settled in America (Cleveland). In the mid war period (1892) he married Julie, daughter of a ship carpenter Anderas Johnsen (the twin sister of our Birthe Marie Andreasen). She left with her two children, a boy Christian and a girl Martha, in 1900 to her husband in Cleveland. She died there (in 1919). Christian joined the Navy during WWI and lived until 1959 [and was still alive at the time Sigfred published his book]. Martin died several years ago (in 1919). His mother was from Stokke in Hurum, died of Tuberculosis.
H After fact checking and research, I can say it's completely coincidence but, on the property that was once "Egholt" / Eikholt farm, there is now the Eikholt Center for the Blind ... Maren Christensdatter Wear also was blind in one eye while she lived at Eikholt and went completely blind shortly after she left.